The generation of an electric field caused by dielectric
in crystals due to strain induced by mechanical stress.
Since the piezoelectric effect was first discovered with quartz crystals
in 1880, various piezoelectric materials including LiNbO3, PZT, PVDF, PT,
PLZT and so on have been developed. In such materials the converse effect
is observed. These materials are used for sensors and actuators. Examples
as sensors are the strain sensor and pressure sensor. And as actuators,
the inchworm mechanism consisting of stacked piezoelectric devices and
a probe manipulator for scanning tunneling microscope (STM) have been developed.
Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are commonly applied in the micromachine-related
fields because of the high efficiency and ease of miniaturization compared
to electromagnetic devices.
Piezoelectric actuator, Electrostrictive effect