Filament or fiber that is made of thin, transparent glass or
synthetic resin and transfers information signal, optical image, or optical energy.
An optical fiber consists of the axial core and the cylindrical
clad that surrounds the core. The reflective index of the core is a little greater than that of the
clad. When a material of a high reflective index is surrounded with another material of a lower
reflective index, light propagates within the inner material of the high reflective index, as is
known as the optical waveguide effect, the principle of the optical fiber. Optical fibers are made
of quartz, multi-component glass, or methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin by CVD process. Optical fibers
are thin, light, flexible, non-induction, efficient, and so on, and are used for transmission of
information signals, optical images, and optical energy. The fiber itself is also used as the
sensor of temperature, pressure, electric and magnetic fields, and so on. An image fiberscope of an
outer diameter of 0.2 mm which is a bundle of 2000 pieces of optical fibers each of which has a
diameter of several micrometers has been made. Since the optical fiber can supply high energy to a
confined area, it is also used as a laser guide fiber for light driven micro-pumps or for less
invasive surgery where the diseased part is irradiated with laser to coagulate the tissue.
Image guide, Fiber endoscope, Catheter, Fiber optics sensors