A mechanism to manipulate microscopic objects such as genes, cells, microcomponents, and microtools.

Micro-manipulators can be driven by mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic (oil or water), electromagnetic, or piezoelectric actuator as well as by electric motors. Micro-manipulators for cell manipulation generally combine two separate drives: one for fine movement and one for coarse movement. Most micro-manipulators are manually controlled by visual information received through microscopes or cameras to adjust their micro-position. Future development of micro-manipulators with force control mechanisms is expected for assembling microscopic objects using micro-force and for realizing micro-teleoperation systems.


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