Holding a microscopic object and performing microscopic manipulation in upward, downward, forward, backward, and rotational directions.

Tasks involving manipulation, under a microscope, of genes, cell nuclei, cells, fertilized embryo, tissue, organs, protozoa, and other organisms require a great deal of skill with a micro-manipulator. Swift and reliable micro-manipulation is now required in the biotechnology and medical fields, and demand for micromechanical systems and micromachines such as precise positioning mechanisms has increased. Micro-manipulation is based on electrostatic force, electromagnetic force, and acoustic and optical pressures, in addition to mechanical or fluid force. In particular, electrostatic force-based technologies are already widely used. For higher precision micro-manipulation involving cells or fine particles, non-contact micro-manipulation using electrostatic and optical forces is being developed instead of conventional micropipettes. Micro-manipulation based on fluid integrated circuits fabricated by photolithography and trapping bacteria and viruses using the optical pressure of focused laser beams have been reported.


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