Holding a microscopic object and performing microscopic manipulation
in upward, downward, forward, backward, and rotational directions.
Tasks involving manipulation, under a microscope, of genes, cell
nuclei, cells, fertilized embryo, tissue, organs, protozoa, and other organisms require a great deal
of skill with a micro-manipulator. Swift and reliable micro-manipulation is now required in the
biotechnology and medical fields, and demand for micromechanical systems and micromachines such as
precise positioning mechanisms has increased. Micro-manipulation is based on electrostatic force,
electromagnetic force, and acoustic and optical pressures, in addition to mechanical or fluid force.
In particular, electrostatic force-based technologies are already widely used. For higher
precision micro-manipulation involving cells or fine particles, non-contact micro-manipulation using
electrostatic and optical forces is being developed instead of conventional micropipettes.
Micro-manipulation based on fluid integrated circuits fabricated by photolithography and trapping
bacteria and viruses using the optical pressure of focused laser beams have been reported.