Various manipulations or treatments to cells.
In the field of biotechnology, various manipulations are made to
cells while holding them. One example is pricking a cell nucleus with a glass capillary tube and
implanting foreign genes. For this kind of manipulation, apparatuses such as an optical microscope,
micro-manipulators, micro-stages, and micro-pipettes are used. Since most of these conventional
equipments require dexterity and experience in manipulation, development of automatic system is
expected. Major themes of development are remote operation, manipulators having multi-degree of
freedom, automatic tracking system, micro actuators, and so on.