An equipment that substitutes a malfunctioning organ and takes over
part of or the entire functions of it temporarily or eternally.
Cardiac pacemakers, artificial hearts, lungs, valves, vessels,
blood, kidneys, pancreases, livers, joints, bones, skins, cochleas, and many other artificial organs
have been researched, developed, and clinically applied. In many cases, an artificial organ takes
over not the entire functions of the original organ but only the primary functions. Since the final
goal is to implant artificial organs in the body, most of them are expected to be of the same size
and shape of natural organs from the anatomical point of view, or even lighter and smaller.
Application of micromachine technology to artificial organs, especially for those requiring sensors
and actuators, is expected.